- General anesthesia causes loss of consciousness;
local or regional anesthesia causes loss of feeling
only to a specified area.
Anatomical Implant - A pre shaped tear drop
shaped breast implant.
Antibiotic - Chemical substances that are either
produced from cultures of microorganisms or produced
artificially for the purpose of killing other organisms
that may cause infection or disease.
Areola The dark area of skin that surrounds
the nipple on the breast.
ASPS - The American Society of Plastic Surgeons
is the largest Elite plastic surgery specialty organization
in the world. ASPS was founded in l93l and the society
is composed of board-certified plastic surgeons that
perform both cosmetic and reconstructive surgery.
The ASPS society promotes advanced quality care to
plastic surgery patients by encouraging the highest
standards of patient safety, physician training, ethics,
physician practice and research in the plastic surgery
field. ASPS members are required to operate in hospitals
or accredited surgical facilities that have passed
rigorous safety reviews of equipment and qualified
staffing. This ASPS symbol of excellence in plastic
surgery is what to look for when deciding on a plastic
Asymmetry - Asymmetry of the breasts is a subtle
or major difference in the breast shape, breast size,
and nipple shape or nipple size. Breast asymmetry
can also be seen as differences in nipple and inframammary
heights between the two breasts. Click
here to read more
Augmentation Mammaplasty- A surgical procedure
to enlarge the breast size using breast implants.
Axilla - Armpit.
Auxiliary dissection - A surgical procedure
in which the lymph nodes in the armpit (axillary nodes)
are removed and a microscopic examination is performed.
Bakers breast implant classifications - A way of describing
capsular contracture of the breasts. A grading system
1 through 4. 1 is normal feeling like a natural breast
and 4 is firm, distorted and painful.
Baker Classification for breast
Class I - Breast implants feel as soft as a
Bakers Class II - Augmented breasts are less
soft and implant can be palpated (felt), but are
Bakers Class III - Augmented breasts are
firm, implants are palpable and the implant or implants
are visible and distorted.
Bakers Class IV - Augmented breasts are,
painful, hard, cold, tender, and distorted or deformed.
Body dysmorphic disorder BDD patients are abnormally
preoccupied with a real or imagined defect in their
physical appearance. Body dysmorphic disorder is a
type of anxiety disorder. BDD patients are obsessed
with their physical appearance. Physical features
or attributes are what provokes the patient's anxiety
and negative perception. Individuals with BDD are
not suitable candidates for plastic surgery because
they may have unrealistic surgery expectations.
Benign - Non-cancerous.
Bilateral - Both sides of the body. Bilateral
breast augmentation is breast augmentation on both
Binelli breast lift A form of circumareaolar
mastopexy (scar is around the nipple areolar) first
described by Dr.Binelli.
Biopsy procedure Tissue samples are
removed from the body for microscopic examination
to determine a diagnosis.
Board Certified Board certification
means that a doctor has completed a residency program
certified by the American Board of Specialists and
has passed both a written and oral examination in
the designated specialty. Do not be fooled. Many doctors
are board certified in different specialties and are
still not board certified plastic surgeons. Ask specifically
if the doctor is, a board certified plastic
surgeon not a board certified cosmetic surgeon,
board certified dentist etc... Certification as a
cosmetic surgeon IS NOT recognized by the American
Board of Specialists.
Board Certified Plastic Surgeon Dr Frederic
Breast cancer - Cancer that starts in the breast
or is isolated to one or both breasts.
Breast Augmentation A surgical procedure
to make the breasts larger using breast implants
Breast Deformity Any abnormal appearance
to the breast either developmental or iatrogenic.
Breast Expert Dr Frederic Corbin
Breast implant - A manufactured, silicone,
rubber sac which is filled with sterile saline or
silicone gel that is used for either breast augmentation
Breast Implant bottoming out - This can occur
for two reasons, 1. Overdiscetion of the breast pocket
inferiorly or 2. general laxity of the breast tissue
combined with the weight of the breast implants.
Breast Implant Sizers Different sizes
of breast implants used to help patients prior to
surgery to find a breast size they desire. Breast
Implant sizers can also be used by plastic surgeons
at the time of breast surgery to aid in gaining symmetry
or development of the breast pocket.
Breast Mound The breast tissue that
gives the breast its shape either natural breast tissue
or created by breast implants
Breast reconstruction - Surgery to rebuild
a breast mound after a mastectomy.
Breast Reduction A surgical procedure
to reduced the size of the breast, usually also associated
with reshaping the breasts
Breast surgery Revision - A revision of the
original breast surgery
Breast self examination (BSE) - A method in
which a woman examines her breasts and the surrounding
areas for lumps or changes. A BSE should be performed
once a month, usually at a time other than the days
before, during, or immediately after the menstrual
Breast specialist - Healthcare professionals
who have a dedicated interest in breast health.
Calcification - The gathering
of small deposits of calcium in the breast tissue,
usually found by mammography.
Capsular contracture This occurs if
the scar or capsule around the implant begins to tighten
and heal aggressively. Capsular contracture can cause
the appearance of the breast and implant to change
shape and become firm.
Capsulotomy- When the capsule surrounding the
breast implant is cut
Capsulectomy The complete removal of
the capsule surrounding the breast implant
CCs Cubic centimeters is the measurement
used in implant sizes
Carcinoma - Cancer in body tissues that cover
or line surfaces of , glands, organs or other body
Chest Wall Deformity - A deformity or abnormality
of the chest wall. Often chest wall deformities are
seen in patients with scoliosis. One chest wall may
protrude outward more than the other. This may also
cause one breast to project outward more one the side
with the chest wall deformity.
Circumareolar breast lift - Frequently referred to
as the Binelli breast lift or doughnut mastopexy.
Though people confuse the two, these are not the same
Cohesive gel breast implants - gummy
bear breast implants Pre filled, pre shaped
Silicone Gel breast implants that are filled with
a thick silicone gel material. Because this silicone
breast implant is firm and pre shaped they require
a larger scar. These implants are not FDA approved.
When cut into these silicone implants are firm like
gummy bear candy and do not leak or bleed.
Constricted Breasts - A general category of
breast defects that share in common a short distance
from the areola to the inframammary crease of the
breast. This general category of breast deformities
also includes tuberous breasts and tubular breasts.
Crescent breast lift A type of breast
lift that involves the resection of a crescent shaped
area of skin from the superior aspect of the areola
of the breast. This breast lift technique is most
commonly used to correct slight differences in nipple-areola
heights on the breasts. This breast lift is not for
patients who are in need of a major breast lift.
Cyst - A closed sac in or under the skin that
is filled with fluid. breast cysts are generally benign.
Diagnostic Mammogram - A detailed
low-dose x-ray of the breast.
Double bubble - A condition of the breast associated
with breast augmentation when either the breast implant
sits noticeably above the normal breast tissue mound
creating a double bubble or below the natural breast
crease creating a double bubble or double crease.
Droopy Breasts - Breasts that have lost their
elasticity and hang or sag.
Ducts - Breast ducts transport milk from the
lobules to the nipple.
Doughnut mastopexy A form of circumareolar
mastopexy (a breast lift with the scar around the
nipple areolar in a doughnut shape)
EKG ( electrocardiogram)
Measurement of the electrical activity of the heart
that can be used to evaluate the medical condition
of the heart. Generally Breast surgery patients over
40 need to have an EKG prior to surgery.
Endoscope A small, flexible tube with
a light and camera on the end used to look inside
an organ or cavity of the body. It also can be used
to aid in breast surgery or other cosmetic procedures
Expander/implant breast reconstruction - The use of
an expander to create more skin following a mastectomy
to allow the placement of a permanently filled breast
implant to reconstruct the breast mound.
Fibrocystic breast disease
- Also called fibroid breasts or generalized breast
lumpiness is noncancerous irregularities and lumpiness
in the breast tissue caused by fibrous cysts.
Flap Breast Reconstruction - Flap
breast reconstruction involves the transfer of tissue
from a distant sight to reconstruct the breast mound
following a mastectomy. This tissue may be transferred
connected to its normal blood supply as in a latissimus
dorsi flap or TRAM flap or may involve the micro anastomosis
of blood vessels in the flap to its new site as in
a Gluteal flap, DIEP flap or Free TRAM flap
Gummy Bear Breast Implants
- Pre filled, pre shaped Silicone Gel breast implants
that are filled with a thick silicone gel material.
Because this silicone breast implant is firm and pre
shaped they require a larger scar. These implants
are not FDA approved. When cut into these silicone
implants are like gummy bear candy they maintain their
shape and do not leak or bleed silicone.
Hematoma - A Collection of
blood usually associated with a surgical incision
site frequently causing a noticeable swelling and
High Profile Breast Implants - Breast implants
that have a smaller circumference and greater projection
Hospital Privileges Physicians must
have privileges to perform procedures at a given hospital.
The hospital will examine the physicians credentials
and have him observed while operating before full
privileges are given.
Infection - self explanatory.
In the case of a breast infection with breast implants
it is generally recommended the breast implants be
removed until the infection is cleared up.
Inflammation - The response of the body tissues
to irritation or injury. The signs of inflammation
are redness, heat, swelling, and sometimes pain.
Incision site - The area through which the
breast implants are placed.
Inframammary Crease - The crease underneath
In Patient Breast Surgery Breast surgery
that requires a hospital stay after surgery.
Inverted Nipples The nipples or nipple
do not protrude above the surface but is retracted
below the areola surface
Inverted T mastopexy A description of the appearance
of the scar following the commonest and oldest form
of breast lift techniques. This inverted T breast
lift leaves the patient with the biggest scars of
all the breast lifts.
Lajour breast lift A
form of vertical mastopexy ( breast lift) in which
the blood supply of the nipple areola is superiorly
based and the scar forms a lollipop appearance on
Loli pop scar - A scar that is around the nipple areolar
and vertical on the breast. This scar is shaped like
a loli pop.
Low Profile breast implants - Breast implants
that have a wider base and less projection.
Lumpectomy - Surgery to remove the cancerous
lump and a portion of normal tissue around the breast
cancer lump. The surgeon may also remove some of the
lymph nodes under the arm to determine if the cancer
Macromastia Extra large
Mammogram A low-dose x-ray of the breast.
Generally breast surgery patients need a mammogram
prior to breast surgery if they are over the age of
Mastectomy - Surgery to remove portions of
or the entire breast.
Mastalgia - Pain or tenderness in the breast
that is usually classified as either cyclical (associated
with menstrual periods) or noncyclical.
Mastopexy Breast lift
Mentor breast implants Breast implants
which are manufactured by the Mentor Corporation
Mentor Corporation - Mentor Corporation is
a leading supplier of medical products in the world.
Mentor develops, manufactures and markets innovative,
medical based products. The Companys Aesthetics
division specializes in breast implants for breast
augmentation and reconstruction, as well as other
products for body and face contouring. Mentors
Companys website is www.mentorcorp.com.
Metastasize - When cancer cells spread to other
parts of the body.
Micromastia - Small breasts
Moderate profile breast implants The
breast implant shape that is the standard shaped round
implant with moderate projection.
Modified radical mastectomy - The removal of
the entire breast (including the nipple, the areola,
and the overlying skin), some of the lymph nodes under
the arm (also called the auxiliary lymph glands),
and the lining over the chest muscles. In some cases,
part of the chest wall muscles is also removed.
MRI - ( Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI can
be used to detect a rupture in breast implants.
Mondors Syndrome - Thrombophlebitis of the
thoracoepigastric vein of the breast and chest wall.
This is temporary.
Needle biopsy - Use of a needle
to extract tissue, cells, or fluid for microscopic
Nipple A small mammary projection in
the middle of the areolar complex of the breast
Open Capsulotomy and breast implant
exchange The capsule around the breast
implants is removed, the old breast implants are taken
out and replaced with new breast implants.
Out Patient Breast Surgery Breast surgery
that is performed in an accredited surgery center
or hospital and does not require and overnight stay.
Partial (segmental) mastectomy
- Surgery to remove the breast cancer and a larger
portion of the normal breast tissue around the breast
cancer - the body's natural way of healing and replacing
lost or damaged skin. The surgeon may also remove
the lining over the chest muscles below the tumor
and some of the lymph nodes under the arm.
Pectoralis Major Muscle - The large, thick,
fan shaped muscle that covers the superior part of
the thorax. This muscle can be separated from the
chest wall during breast surgery so the implant can
be placed underneath it.
Pendulous Breasts - Drooping breasts
the areola is below the inframammary crease of the
Peri Areolar Along the areola
Polands syndrome - Congenital absence
of pectoralis muscle associated with chest wall or
same side upper extremity deformities
Pre-operative - Before Surgery
Post Operative - After Surgery
Prosthesis - An artificial form designed to
replace a missing part of the body. Breast prostheses
may be worn following a mastectomy
Ptosis - The nipple areolar complex being below
the inframammary crease of the breast.
Pseudoptosois - Is when breast tissue is below
the inframammary crease of the breasts, but the nipples
Radiation therapy - Therapy
that uses high energy x-rays to kill cancer cells
and shrink tumors .External radiation by an x-ray
machine sends the x-ray through the skin. Internal
radiation puts radioisotopes into the body through
thin plastic tubes.
Radical mastectomy - Surgery to remove the
entire breast (including the nipple, the areola, and
the overlying skin), the lymph nodes under the armpit
also called the auxiliary lymph glands, and the chest
Resize - When a patient tries the breast implant
sizers on a second or more times to confirm their
breast implant size for surgery.
Rippling Folds or dents in breast implants
that can be seen or palpated through the skin on the
breast. Ripples in breast implants are most commonly
seen in saline breast implants and textured surfaced
Ruptured breast implant - A breast implant
that has leaked and is partial or totally deflated
Round Breast Implant The shape of the
breast implant is round
Scar - The body's natural way
of healing and replacing lost or damaged skin. A scar
is usually composed of fibrous tissue. Scars may be
formed for many different reasons, including as a
result of infections, surgery, injuries, or inflammation
Scoliosis - A curvature of the spine affecting
the breasts because it cases one breast to be higher
or lower than the other breast or one chest wall being
larger or more prominent than the other side.
Sizing When breast augmentation patients
try on breast implant sizers to see the ideal breast
size for their body .
Skin Expander - A silicone bag usually progressively
filled with saline to expand the skin and surrounding
tissues in the breast or other area used. This device
is frequently used to create more skin following a
mastectomy to allow for placement of a permanent breast
Smooth surface Breast Implants The outer
encasing of the breast implant has a smooth surface
Snoopy breasts A slang term for deformed
breasts whose shape resemble snoopy's nose.
Spair mastopexy A Short scar, circumAreolar
Inferior based pedicle Reduction/ mastopexy
This is an advanced form of vertical mastopexy leaving
the patient with a lollipop scar.
Spair Breast Reduction A Short scar,
circumareolar Inferior based pedicle Reduction/ mastopexy
This is an advanced form of vertical mastopexy
leaving the patient with a lollipop scar.
Sub muscular breast augmentation - A breast
augmentation performed by separating the pectoralis
major muscle from the chest wall and dissecting a
pocket underneath the pectoralis major muscle to place
the breast implant.
Sub mammary breast augmentation - The breast
pocket is created behind the natural breast but in
front of the pectoralis muscle
Sub fascia breast augmentation - The breast
pocket is created in front of the pectoralis major
muscle but behind the pectoralis fascia
Surgical Bra A bra with front closures
and no underwire to be worn after breast surgery
Sutures - A thread like surgical material used
to close the incision.
Synmastia A breast deformity that looks
like a uniboob. This condition can be congenital or
caused by surgery
Textured Breast Implants
Breast implants that have a textured outer shell.
These breast implants were originally designed to
help prevent capsular contracture. Dr. Corbin believes
textured surface breast implants have a higher rupture
rate than smooth surface breast implants.
The breast expert Dr. Frederic Corbin
Third Nipple - An extra nipple that is either
on or around the breast. The third nipple can be with
or without sensation and is easily removed with surgery.
Tram Flap - Transverse Abdominis Myocutaneous
Flap or in laymans terms a tummy Tuck
Tuba - (Trans Umbilical Breast Augmentation)
A breast surgery technique performed by making a small
incion around the umbilical rim (belly Button)to create
a tunnel up through the skin to the chest wall. The
implants are placed through this tunnel and placed
either in front of the breast tissue or behind the
pectralis major muscle.
Tuberous breasts - A breast deformity where
the breast is shaped like a tuberous plant such as
a potato. It is a form of constricted breast.
Tubular breasts A breast deformity where
the breast and or nipple areola complex has a tubular
or cucumber shape as opposed to the conical shape
normally seen in a developing breast. It is a form
of constricted breast.
Unilateral One side
of the body. In the case of breast surgery unilateral
means one breast. Example: Unilateral breast augmentation
means to make one breast bigger.
Ultrasound - A diagnostic imaging technique
which uses high-frequency sound waves to create an
image of the internal organs. An ultra sound may be
used to help detect a ruptured breast implant.
Vertical scar A scar
that goes downward on the breast
to the top